Сообщение

Douglas Richard Hanks Jr., Harry Reynolds - Juniper MX Series [2012, PDF, ENG]

Сообщение Солнышко » 26 фев 2017, 00:48

Juniper MX Series

Год: 2012
Автор: Douglas Richard Hanks Jr., Harry Reynolds
Жанр: сети
Издательство: O'Reilly Media
ISBN: 978-1449319717
Язык: Английский
Формат: PDF
Качество: Изначально компьютерное (eBook)
Интерактивное оглавление: Да
Количество страниц: 902
Описание: Discover why routers in the Juniper MX Series, with their advanced feature sets and record breaking scale, are so popular among enterprises and network service providers. This authoritative book shows you step-by-step how to implement high-density, high-speed Layer 2 and Layer 3 Ethernet services, using Router Engine DDoS Protection, Multi-chassis LAG, Inline NAT, IPFIX/J-Flow, and many other Juniper MX features.

Written by Juniper Network engineers, each chapter covers a specific Juniper MX vertical and includes review questions to help you test what you learn.

Delve into the Juniper MX architecture, including the next generation Junos Trio chipset
Explore Juniper MX’s bridging, VLAN mapping, and support for thousands of virtual switches
Add an extra layer of security by combining Junos DDoS protection with firewall filters
Create a firewall filter framework that only applies filters specific to your network
Discover the advantages of hierarchical scheduling
Combine Juniper MX routers, using a virtual chassis or Multi-chassis LAG
Install network services such as Network Address Translation (NAT) inside the Trio chipset
Examine Junos high availability features and protocols on Juniper MX
"For the no-nonsense engineer who likes to get down to it, The Juniper MX Series targets both service providers and enterprises with an illustrative style supported by diagrams, tables, code blocks, and CLI output. Readers will discover features they didn't know about before and can't resist putting them into production."

—Ethan Banks, CCIE #20655, Packet Pushers Podcast Host
About the Authors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii
1. Juniper MX Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
Junos 2
One Junos 3
Software Releases 3
Three Release Cadence 4
Software Architecture 5
Daemons 6
Routing Sockets 11
Juniper MX Chassis 13
MX80 14
Midrange 17
MX240 18
MX480 20
MX960 21
Trio 24
Trio Architecture 25
Buffering Block 26
Lookup Block 27
Interfaces Block 28
Dense Queuing Block 30
Line Cards and Modules 30
Dense Port Concentrator 31
Modular Port Concentrator 32
Packet Walkthrough 41
Modular Interface Card 44
Network Services 46
Switch and Control Board 47
vii
Ethernet Switch 48
Switch Fabric 52
J-Cell 55
MX Switch Control Board 57
Enhanced MX Switch Control Board 60
MX2020 61
Architecture 61
Summary 67
Chapter Review Questions 69
Chapter Review Answers 70
2. Bridging, VLAN Mapping, IRB, and Virtual Switches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Isn’t the MX a Router? 71
Layer 2 Networking 73
Ethernet II 73
IEEE 802.1Q 74
IEEE 802.1QinQ 75
Junos Interfaces 77
Interface Bridge Configuration 80
Basic Comparison of Service Provider versus Enterprise Style 80
Service Provider Interface Bridge Configuration 83
Tagging 84
Encapsulation 87
Service Provider Bridge Domain Configuration 91
Enterprise Interface Bridge Configuration 94
Interface Mode 94
VLAN Rewrite 97
Service Provider VLAN Mapping 99
Stack Data Structure 99
Stack Operations 100
Stack Operations Map 103
Tag Count 106
Bridge Domain Requirements 107
Example: Push and Pop 107
Example: Swap-Push and Pop-Swap 109
Bridge Domains 111
Learning Domain 112
Bridge Domain Modes 115
Bridge Domain Options 131
Show Bridge Domain Commands 135
Clear MAC Addresses 137
MAC Accounting 139
Integrated Routing and Bridging 141
viii | Table of Contents
IRB Attributes 142
Virtual Switch 144
Configuration 145
Summary 149
Chapter Review Questions 150
Chapter Review Answers 151
3. Stateless Filters, Hierarchical Policing, and Tri-Color Marking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153
Firewall Filter and Policer Overview 153
Stateless versus Stateful 154
Stateless Filter Components 155
Filters versus Routing Policy 161
Filter Scaling 163
Filtering Differences for MPC versus DPC 166
Enhanced Filter Mode 166
Filter Operation 167
Stateless Filter Processing 167
Policing 173
Rate Limiting: Shaping or Policing? 173
Junos Policer Operation 178
Basic Policer Example 180
Cascaded Policers 181
Single and Two-Rate Three-Color Policers 184
Hierarchical Policers 192
Applying Filters and Policers 195
Filter Application Points 195
Applying Policers 200
Policer Application Restrictions 212
Bridge Filtering Case Study 213
Filter Processing in Bridged and Routed Environments 213
Monitor and Troubleshoot Filters and Policers 214
Bridge Family Filter and Policing Case Study 221
Summary 230
Chapter Review Questions 231
Chapter Review Answers 233
4. Routing Engine Protection and DDoS Prevention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
RE Protection Case Study 235
IPv4 RE Protection Filter 236
IPv6 RE Protection Filter 260
DDoS Protection Case Study 271
The Issue of Control Plane Depletion 272
DDoS Operational Overview 273
Table of Contents | ix
Configuration and Operational Verification 279
Late Breaking DDoS Updates 287
DDoS Case Study 287
The Attack Has Begun! 289
Mitigate DDoS Attacks 294
BGP Flow-Specification to the Rescue 295
Summary 301
BGP Flow-Specification Case Study 301
Let the Attack Begin! 306
Summary 314
Chapter Review Questions 315
Chapter Review Answers 316
5. Trio Class of Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319
MX CoS Capabilities 319
Port versus Hierarchical Queuing MPCs 320
CoS Capabilities and Scale 323
Trio CoS Flow 330
Intelligent Oversubscription 331
The Remaining CoS Packet Flow 334
CoS Processing: Port- and Queue-Based MPCs 334
Trio Hashing and Load Balancing 339
Key Aspects of the Trio CoS Model 344
Trio CoS Processing Summary 348
Hierarchical CoS 349
The H-CoS Reference Model 350
Level 4: Queues 352
Level 3: IFL 355
Level 2: IFL-Sets 358
Level 1: IFD 362
Remaining 362
Interface Modes and Excess Bandwidth Sharing 368
Priority-Based Shaping 384
Fabric CoS 386
Control CoS on Host-Generated Traffic 387
H-CoS Summary 392
Trio Scheduling and Queuing 393
Scheduling Discipline 393
Scheduler Priority Levels 395
Scheduler Modes 403
H-CoS and Aggregated Ethernet Interfaces 421
Schedulers, Scheduler Maps, and TCPs 423
Trio Scheduling and Priority Summary 430
x | Table of Contents
MX Trio CoS Defaults 430
Four Forwarding Classes, but Only Two Queues 431
Default BA and Rewrite Marker Templates 432
MX Trio CoS Defaults Summary 434
Predicting Queue Throughput 434
Where to Start? 435
Trio CoS Proof-of-Concept Test Lab 437
Predicting Queue Throughput Summary 451
CoS Lab 451
Configure Unidirectional CoS 453
Verify Unidirectional CoS 473
Confirm Scheduling Behavior 494
Add H-CoS for Subscriber Access 508
Configure H-CoS 512
Verify H-CoS 516
Trio CoS Summary 529
Chapter Review Questions 529
Chapter Review Answers 532
6. MX Virtual Chassis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 537
What is Virtual Chassis? 537
MX-VC Terminology 539
MX-VC Use Case 540
MX-VC Requirements 541
MX-VC Architecture 543
MX-VC Interface Numbering 554
MX-VC Packet Walkthrough 556
Virtual Chassis Topology 558
Mastership Election 559
Summary 560
MX-VC Configuration 561
Chassis Serial Number 561
Member ID 562
R1 VCP Interface 563
Routing Engine Groups 564
Virtual Chassis Configuration 566
R2 VCP Interface 567
Virtual Chassis Verification 570
Revert to Standalone 572
Summary 573
VCP Interface Class of Service 573
VCP Traffic Encapsulation 573
VCP Class of Service Walkthrough 574
Table of Contents | xi
Forwarding Classes 575
Schedulers 576
Classifiers 578
Rewrite Rules 580
Final Configuration 581
Verification 583
Summary 584
Chapter Review Questions 585
Chapter Review Answers 586
7. Trio Inline Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 589
What are Trio Inline Services? 589
J-Flow 590
J-Flow Evolution 591
Inline IPFIX Performance 591
Inline IPFIX Configuration 592
Inline IPFIX Verification 599
IPFIX Summary 601
Network Address Translation 601
Types of NAT 601
Services Inline Interface 603
Service Sets 604
Destination NAT Configuration 618
Network Address Translation Summary 621
Tunnel Services 621
Enabling Tunnel Services 622
Tunnel Services Case Study 623
Tunnel Services Summary 632
Port Mirroring 632
Port Mirror Case Study 634
Port Mirror Summary 639
Summary 640
Chapter Review Questions 640
Chapter Review Answers 641
8. Multi-Chassis Link Aggregation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 643
Multi-Chassis Link Aggregation 643
MC-LAG State Overview 645
MC-LAG Family Support 646
Multi-Chassis Link Aggregation versus MX Virtual-Chassis 647
MC-LAG Summary 648
Inter-Chassis Control Protocol 648
ICCP Hierarchy 649
xii | Table of Contents
ICCP Topology Guidelines 652
How to Configure ICCP 652
ICCP Configuration Guidelines 659
ICCP Split Brain 664
ICCP Summary 665
MC-LAG Modes 665
Active-Standby 666
Active-Active 668
MC-LAG Modes Summary 673
Case Study 673
Logical Interfaces and Loopback Addressing 675
Layer 2 676
Layer 3 689
MC-LAG Configuration 695
Connectivity Verification 707
Case Study Summary 716
Summary 716
Chapter Review Questions 717
Chapter Review Answers 718
9. Junos High Availability on MX Routers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 721
Junos High-Availability Feature Overview 721
Graceful Routing Engine Switchover 723
The GRES Process 723
Configure GRES 728
GRES Summary 740
Graceful Restart 740
GR Shortcomings 741
Graceful Restart Operation: OSPF 741
Graceful Restart and other Routing Protocols 747
Configure and Verify OSPF GR 751
Graceful Restart Summary 761
Nonstop Routing and Bridging 761
Replication, the Magic That Keeps Protocols Running 762
Nonstop Bridging 767
Current NSR/NSB Support 769
This NSR Thing Sounds Cool; So What Can Go Wrong? 776
Configure NSR and NSB 783
Verify NSR and NSB 785
NSR Summary 813
In-Service Software Upgrades 814
ISSU Operation 814
ISSU Layer 3 Protocol Support 819
Table of Contents | xiii
ISSU Layer 2 Support 819
MX MIC/MPC ISSU Support 820
ISSU: A Double-Edged Knife 820
ISSU Summary 823
ISSU Lab 823
Verify ISSU Readiness 825
Perform an ISSU 827
Summary 834
Chapter Review Questions 834
Chapter Review Answers 836
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 839

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