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Книга Michael Sikorski, Andrew Honig - Practical Malware Analysis [2012, PDF, ENG]

Сообщение Nik » 27 дек 2013, 22:57

Practical Malware Analysis

Год: 2012
Автор: Michael Sikorski, Andrew Honig
Издательство: No Starch Press
ISBN: 978-1-59327-290-6
Язык: Английский
Формат: PDF
Качество: Изначально компьютерное (eBook)
Интерактивное оглавление: Да
Количество страниц: 800
Описание: Malware analysis is big business, and attacks can cost a company dearly. When malware breaches your defenses, you need to act quickly to cure current infections and prevent future ones from occurring.

For those who want to stay ahead of the latest malware, Practical Malware Analysis will teach you the tools and techniques used by professional analysts. With this book as your guide, you'll be able to safely analyze, debug, and disassemble any malicious software that comes your way.

You'll learn how

- Set up a safe virtual environment to analyze malware
- Quickly extract network signatures and host-based indicators
- Use key analysis tools like IDA Pro, OllyDbg, and WinDbg
- Overcome malware tricks like obfuscation, anti-disassembly, anti-debugging, and anti-virtual machine techniques
- Use your newfound knowledge of Windows internals for malware analysis
- Develop a methodology for unpacking malware and get practical experience with five of the most popular packers
- Analyze special cases of malware with shellcode, C++, and 64-bit code

Hands-on labs throughout the book challenge you to practice and synthesize your skills as you dissect real malware samples, and pages of detailed dissections offer an over-the-shoulder look at how the pros do it. You'll learn how to crack open malware to see how it really works, determine what damage it has done, thoroughly clean your network, and ensure that the malware never comes back.

Malware analysis is a cat-and-mouse game with rules that are constantly changing, so make sure you have the fundamentals. Whether you're tasked with securing one network or a thousand networks, or you're making a living as a malware analyst, you'll find what you need to succeed in Practical Malware Analysis.

Книшка про то, как распознавать злокозненныя *зачеркнуто* вредоносные программы.
Примеры страниц
Оглавление
Introduction
Chapter 0: Malware Analysis Primer

Part 1: Basic Analysis
Chapter 1: Basic Static Techniques
Chapter 2: Malware Analysis in Virtual Machines
Chapter 3: Basic Dynamic Analysis

Part 2: Advanced Static Analysis
Chapter 4: A Crash Course in x86 Disassembly
Chapter 5: IDA Pro
Chapter 6: Recognizing C Code Constructs in Assembly
Chapter 7: Analyzing Malicious Windows Programs

Part 3: Advanced Dynamic Analysis
Chapter 8: Debugging
Chapter 9: OllyDbg
Chapter 10: Kernel Debugging with WinDbg

Part 4: Malware Functionality
Chapter 11: Malware Behavior
Chapter 12: Covert Malware Launching
Chapter 13: Data Encoding
Chapter 14: Malware-Focused Network Signatures

Part 5: Anti-Reverse-Engineering
Chapter 15: Anti-Disassembly
Chapter 16: Anti-Debugging
Chapter 17: Anti-Virtual Machine Techniques
Chapter 18: Packers and Unpacking

Part 6: Special Topics
Chapter 19: Shellcode Analysis
Chapter 20: C++ Analysis
Chapter 21: 64-Bit Malware

Appendix A: Important Windows Functions
Appendix B: Tools for Malware Analysis
Appendix C: Solutions to Labs
Очень подробное оглавление
ABOUT THE AUTHORS xix
About the Technical Reviewer ................................................................................... xx
About the Contributing Authors ................................................................................. xx
FOREWORD by Richard Bejtlich xxi
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xxv
Individual Thanks ...................................................................................................xxv
INTRODUCTION xxvii
What Is Malware Analysis? .................................................................................. xxviii
Prerequisites ....................................................................................................... xxviii
Practical, Hands-On Learning .................................................................................xxix
What’s in the Book? ...............................................................................................xxx
0
MALWARE ANALYSIS PRIMER 1
The Goals of Malware Analysis ................................................................................. 1
Malware Analysis Techniques .................................................................................... 2
Basic Static Analysis .................................................................................... 2
Basic Dynamic Analysis ............................................................................... 2
Advanced Static Analysis ............................................................................. 3
Advanced Dynamic Analysis ........................................................................ 3
Types of Malware .................................................................................................... 3
General Rules for Malware Analysis ........................................................................... 5
PART 1
BASIC ANALYSIS
1
BASIC STATIC TECHNIQUES 9
Antivirus Scanning: A Useful First Step ...................................................................... 10
Hashing: A Fingerprint for Malware ......................................................................... 10
Finding Strings ....................................................................................................... 11
Packed and Obfuscated Malware ............................................................................ 13
Packing Files ............................................................................................ 13
Detecting Packers with PEiD ........................................................................ 14
Portable Executable File Format ................................................................................ 14
Linked Libraries and Functions .................................................................................. 15
Static, Runtime, and Dynamic Linking ........................................................... 15
viii Contents in Detail
Exploring Dynamically Linked Functions with Dependency Walker .................. 16
Imported Functions .................................................................................... 18
Exported Functions .................................................................................... 18
Static Analysis in Practice ........................................................................................ 18
PotentialKeylogger.exe: An Unpacked Executable ......................................... 18
PackedProgram.exe: A Dead End ............................................................... 21
The PE File Headers and Sections ............................................................................. 21
Examining PE Files with PEview ................................................................... 22
Viewing the Resource Section with Resource Hacker ...................................... 25
Using Other PE File Tools ........................................................................... 26
PE Header Summary .................................................................................. 26
Conclusion ............................................................................................................ 26
Labs ..................................................................................................................... 27
2
MALWARE ANALYSIS IN VIRTUAL MACHINES 29
The Structure of a Virtual Machine ............................................................................ 30
Creating Your Malware Analysis Machine ................................................................ 31
Configuring VMware ................................................................................. 31
Using Your Malware Analysis Machine ..................................................................... 34
Connecting Malware to the Internet ............................................................. 34
Connecting and Disconnecting Peripheral Devices ......................................... 34
Taking Snapshots ...................................................................................... 35
Transferring Files from a Virtual Machine ..................................................... 36
The Risks of Using VMware for Malware Analysis ...................................................... 36
Record/Replay: Running Your Computer in Reverse .................................................... 37
Conclusion ............................................................................................................ 37
3
BASIC DYNAMIC ANALYSIS 39
Sandboxes: The Quick-and-Dirty Approach ............................................................... 40
Using a Malware Sandbox ......................................................................... 40
Sandbox Drawbacks ................................................................................. 41
Running Malware ................................................................................................... 42
Monitoring with Process Monitor .............................................................................. 43
The Procmon Display ................................................................................. 44
Filtering in Procmon ................................................................................... 44
Viewing Processes with Process Explorer ................................................................... 47
The Process Explorer Display ...................................................................... 47
Using the Verify Option ............................................................................. 48
Comparing Strings .................................................................................... 49
Using Dependency Walker ......................................................................... 49
Analyzing Malicious Documents .................................................................. 50
Comparing Registry Snapshots with Regshot .............................................................. 50
Contents in Detail ix
Faking a Network .................................................................................................. 51
Using ApateDNS ...................................................................................... 51
Monitoring with Netcat .............................................................................. 52
Packet Sniffing with Wireshark ................................................................................. 53
Using INetSim ........................................................................................................ 55
Basic Dynamic Tools in Practice ............................................................................... 56
Conclusion ............................................................................................................ 60
Labs ..................................................................................................................... 61
PART 2
ADVANCED STATIC ANALYSIS
4
A CRASH COURSE IN X86 DISASSEMBLY 65
Levels of Abstraction ............................................................................................... 66
Reverse-Engineering ............................................................................................... 67
The x86 Architecture .............................................................................................. 68
Main Memory ........................................................................................... 69
Instructions ............................................................................................... 69
Opcodes and Endianness ........................................................................... 70
Operands ................................................................................................ 70
Registers .................................................................................................. 71
Simple Instructions ..................................................................................... 73
The Stack ................................................................................................. 77
Conditionals ............................................................................................. 80
Branching ................................................................................................ 80
Rep Instructions ......................................................................................... 81
C Main Method and Offsets ....................................................................... 83
More Information: Intel x86 Architecture Manuals ......................................... 85
Conclusion ............................................................................................................ 85
5
IDA PRO 87
Loading an Executable ............................................................................................ 88
The IDA Pro Interface .............................................................................................. 89
Disassembly Window Modes ...................................................................... 89
Useful Windows for Analysis ...................................................................... 91
Returning to the Default View ...................................................................... 92
Navigating IDA Pro ................................................................................... 92
Searching ................................................................................................ 94
Using Cross-References ........................................................................................... 95
Code Cross-References .............................................................................. 95
Data Cross-References ............................................................................... 96
Analyzing Functions ............................................................................................... 97
Using Graphing Options ......................................................................................... 98
x Contents in Detai l
Enhancing Disassembly ......................................................................................... 100
Renaming Locations ................................................................................. 100
Comments .............................................................................................. 100
Formatting Operands ............................................................................... 100
Using Named Constants .......................................................................... 102
Redefining Code and Data ....................................................................... 103
Extending IDA with Plug-ins ................................................................................... 103
Using IDC Scripts .................................................................................... 104
Using IDAPython ..................................................................................... 105
Using Commercial Plug-ins ....................................................................... 106
Conclusion .......................................................................................................... 106
Labs ................................................................................................................... 107
6
RECOGNIZING C CODE CONSTRUCTS IN ASSEMBLY 109
Global vs. Local Variables ..................................................................................... 110
Disassembling Arithmetic Operations ...................................................................... 112
Recognizing if Statements ...................................................................................... 113
Analyzing Functions Graphically with IDA Pro ............................................ 114
Recognizing Nested if Statements .............................................................. 114
Recognizing Loops ............................................................................................... 116
Finding for Loops .................................................................................... 116
Finding while Loops ................................................................................. 118
Understanding Function Call Conventions ................................................................ 119
cdecl ..................................................................................................... 119
stdcall .................................................................................................... 120
fastcall ................................................................................................... 120
Push vs. Move ......................................................................................... 120
Analyzing switch Statements .................................................................................. 121
If Style ................................................................................................... 122
Jump Table ............................................................................................. 123
Disassembling Arrays ........................................................................................... 127
Identifying Structs ................................................................................................. 128
Analyzing Linked List Traversal ............................................................................... 130
Conclusion .......................................................................................................... 132
Labs ................................................................................................................... 133
7
ANALYZING MALICIOUS WINDOWS PROGRAMS 135
The Windows API ................................................................................................ 136
Types and Hungarian Notation ................................................................. 136
Handles ................................................................................................. 137
File System Functions ............................................................................... 137
Special Files ........................................................................................... 138
The Windows Registry .......................................................................................... 139
Registry Root Keys ................................................................................... 140
Regedit .................................................................................................. 140
Programs that Run Automatically ............................................................... 140
Common Registry Functions ...................................................................... 141
Contents in Detail xi
Analyzing Registry Code in Practice .......................................................... 141
Registry Scripting with .reg Files ................................................................ 142
Networking APIs .................................................................................................. 143
Berkeley Compatible Sockets .................................................................... 143
The Server and Client Sides of Networking ................................................. 144
The WinINet API ..................................................................................... 145
Following Running Malware .................................................................................. 145
DLLs ....................................................................................................... 145
Processes ............................................................................................... 147
Threads .................................................................................................. 149
Interprocess Coordination with Mutexes ..................................................... 151
Services ................................................................................................. 152
The Component Object Model .................................................................. 154
Exceptions: When Things Go Wrong ......................................................... 157
Kernel vs. User Mode ........................................................................................... 158
The Native API ..................................................................................................... 159
Conclusion .......................................................................................................... 161
Labs ................................................................................................................... 162
PART 3
ADVANCED DYNAMIC ANALYSIS
8
DEBUGGING 167
Source-Level vs. Assembly-Level Debuggers .............................................................. 168
Kernel vs. User-Mode Debugging ........................................................................... 168
Using a Debugger ................................................................................................ 169
Single-Stepping ....................................................................................... 169
Stepping-Over vs. Stepping-Into ................................................................ 170
Pausing Execution with Breakpoints ........................................................... 171
Exceptions ........................................................................................................... 175
First- and Second-Chance Exceptions ......................................................... 176
Common Exceptions ................................................................................ 176
Modifying Execution with a Debugger .................................................................... 177
Modifying Program Execution in Practice ................................................................ 177
Conclusion .......................................................................................................... 178
9
OLLYDBG 179
Loading Malware ................................................................................................. 180
Opening an Executable ........................................................................... 180
Attaching to a Running Process ................................................................. 181
The OllyDbg Interface ........................................................................................... 181
Memory Map ...................................................................................................... 183
Rebasing ................................................................................................ 184
Viewing Threads and Stacks .................................................................................. 185
Executing Code ................................................................................................... 186
xii Contents in Detail
Breakpoints ......................................................................................................... 188
Software Breakpoints ............................................................................... 188
Conditional Breakpoints ........................................................................... 189
Hardware Breakpoints ............................................................................. 190
Memory Breakpoints ................................................................................ 190
Loading DLLs ....................................................................................................... 191
Tracing ............................................................................................................... 192
Standard Back Trace ............................................................................... 192
Call Stack .............................................................................................. 193
Run Trace ............................................................................................... 193
Tracing Poison Ivy ................................................................................... 193
Exception Handling .............................................................................................. 194
Patching .............................................................................................................. 195
Analyzing Shellcode ............................................................................................. 196
Assistance Features .............................................................................................. 197
Plug-ins ............................................................................................................... 197
OllyDump ............................................................................................... 198
Hide Debugger ....................................................................................... 198
Command Line ........................................................................................ 198
Bookmarks ............................................................................................. 199
Scriptable Debugging ........................................................................................... 200
Conclusion .......................................................................................................... 201
Labs ................................................................................................................... 202
10
KERNEL DEBUGGING WITH WINDBG 205
Drivers and Kernel Code ....................................................................................... 206
Setting Up Kernel Debugging ................................................................................ 207
Using WinDbg ..................................................................................................... 210
Reading from Memory ............................................................................. 210
Using Arithmetic Operators ...................................................................... 211
Setting Breakpoints .................................................................................. 211
Listing Modules ....................................................................................... 212
Microsoft Symbols ................................................................................................ 212
Searching for Symbols ............................................................................. 212
Viewing Structure Information ................................................................... 213
Configuring Windows Symbols ................................................................. 215
Kernel Debugging in Practice ................................................................................. 215
Looking at the User-Space Code ............................................................... 215
Looking at the Kernel-Mode Code ............................................................. 217
Finding Driver Objects ............................................................................. 220
Rootkits ............................................................................................................... 221
Rootkit Analysis in Practice ....................................................................... 222
Interrupts ................................................................................................ 225
Loading Drivers .................................................................................................... 226
Kernel Issues for Windows Vista, Windows 7, and x64 Versions ............................... 226
Conclusion .......................................................................................................... 227
Labs ................................................................................................................... 228
Contents in Detail xiii
PART 4
MALWARE FUNCTIONALITY
11
MALWARE BEHAVIOR 231
Downloaders and Launchers .................................................................................. 231
Backdoors ........................................................................................................... 232
Reverse Shell .......................................................................................... 232
RATs ...................................................................................................... 233
Botnets ................................................................................................... 234
RATs and Botnets Compared .................................................................... 234
Credential Stealers ............................................................................................... 234
GINA Interception ................................................................................... 235
Hash Dumping ........................................................................................ 236
Keystroke Logging ................................................................................... 238
Persistence Mechanisms ........................................................................................ 241
The Windows Registry ............................................................................. 241
Trojanized System Binaries ....................................................................... 243
DLL Load-Order Hijacking ......................................................................... 244
Privilege Escalation .............................................................................................. 245
Using SeDebugPrivilege ........................................................................... 246
Covering Its Tracks—User-Mode Rootkits ................................................................. 247
IAT Hooking ........................................................................................... 248
Inline Hooking ........................................................................................ 248
Conclusion .......................................................................................................... 250
Labs ................................................................................................................... 251
12
COVERT MALWARE LAUNCHING 253
Launchers ............................................................................................................ 253
Process Injection ................................................................................................... 254
DLL Injection ........................................................................................... 254
Direct Injection ........................................................................................ 257
Process Replacement ............................................................................................ 257
Hook Injection ..................................................................................................... 259
Local and Remote Hooks .......................................................................... 260
Keyloggers Using Hooks .......................................................................... 260
Using SetWindowsHookEx ....................................................................... 260
Thread Targeting ..................................................................................... 261
Detours ............................................................................................................... 262
APC Injection ....................................................................................................... 262
APC Injection from User Space ................................................................. 263
APC Injection from Kernel Space ............................................................... 264
Conclusion .......................................................................................................... 265
Labs ................................................................................................................... 266
xiv Contents in Detai l
13
DATA ENCODING 269
The Goal of Analyzing Encoding Algorithms ........................................................... 270
Simple Ciphers .................................................................................................... 270
Caesar Cipher ........................................................................................ 270
XOR ...................................................................................................... 271
Other Simple Encoding Schemes ............................................................... 276
Base64 .................................................................................................. 277
Common Cryptographic Algorithms ........................................................................ 280
Recognizing Strings and Imports ............................................................... 281
Searching for Cryptographic Constants ...................................................... 282
Searching for High-Entropy Content ........................................................... 283
Custom Encoding ................................................................................................. 285
Identifying Custom Encoding .................................................................... 285
Advantages of Custom Encoding to the Attacker ......................................... 288
Decoding ............................................................................................................ 288
Self-Decoding ......................................................................................... 288
Manual Programming of Decoding Functions .............................................. 289
Using Instrumentation for Generic Decryption ............................................. 291
Conclusion .......................................................................................................... 294
Labs ................................................................................................................... 295
14
MALWARE-FOCUSED NETWORK SIGNATURES 297
Network Countermeasures .................................................................................... 297
Observing the Malware in Its Natural Habitat ............................................. 298
Indications of Malicious Activity ................................................................ 298
OPSEC = Operations Security .................................................................. 299
Safely Investigate an Attacker Online ...................................................................... 300
Indirection Tactics .................................................................................... 300
Getting IP Address and Domain Information ............................................... 300
Content-Based Network Countermeasures ............................................................... 302
Intrusion Detection with Snort .................................................................... 303
Taking a Deeper Look .............................................................................. 304
Combining Dynamic and Static Analysis Techniques ................................................ 307
The Danger of Overanalysis ..................................................................... 308
Hiding in Plain Sight ................................................................................ 308
Understanding Surrounding Code ............................................................. 312
Finding the Networking Code ................................................................... 313
Knowing the Sources of Network Content .................................................. 314
Hard-Coded Data vs. Ephemeral Data ....................................................... 314
Identifying and Leveraging the Encoding Steps ........................................... 315
Creating a Signature ............................................................................... 317
Analyze the Parsing Routines .................................................................... 318
Targeting Multiple Elements ...................................................................... 320
Understanding the Attacker’s Perspective ................................................................ 321
Conclusion .......................................................................................................... 322
Labs ................................................................................................................... 323
Contents in Detail xv
PART 5
ANTI-REVERSE-ENGINEERING
15
ANTI-DISASSEMBLY 327
Understanding Anti-Disassembly ............................................................................. 328
Defeating Disassembly Algorithms .......................................................................... 329
Linear Disassembly .................................................................................. 329
Flow-Oriented Disassembly ....................................................................... 331
Anti-Disassembly Techniques .................................................................................. 334
Jump Instructions with the Same Target ....................................................... 334
A Jump Instruction with a Constant Condition .............................................. 336
Impossible Disassembly ............................................................................ 337
NOP-ing Out Instructions with IDA Pro ....................................................... 340
Obscuring Flow Control ........................................................................................ 340
The Function Pointer Problem .................................................................... 340
Adding Missing Code Cross-References in IDA Pro ...................................... 342
Return Pointer Abuse ................................................................................ 342
Misusing Structured Exception Handlers ..................................................... 344
Thwarting Stack-Frame Analysis ............................................................................. 347
Conclusion .......................................................................................................... 349
Labs ................................................................................................................... 350
16
ANTI-DEBUGGING 351
Windows Debugger Detection ............................................................................... 352
Using the Windows API ........................................................................... 352
Manually Checking Structures ................................................................... 353
Checking for System Residue .................................................................... 356
Identifying Debugger Behavior ............................................................................... 356
INT Scanning .......................................................................................... 357
Performing Code Checksums .................................................................... 357
Timing Checks ........................................................................................ 357
Interfering with Debugger Functionality ................................................................... 359
Using TLS Callbacks ................................................................................ 359
Using Exceptions ..................................................................................... 361
Inserting Interrupts ................................................................................... 362
Debugger Vulnerabilities ....................................................................................... 363
PE Header Vulnerabilities ......................................................................... 363
The OutputDebugString Vulnerability ......................................................... 365
Conclusion .......................................................................................................... 365
Labs ................................................................................................................... 367
17
ANTI-VIRTUAL MACHINE TECHNIQUES 369
VMware Artifacts ................................................................................................. 370
Bypassing VMware Artifact Searching ....................................................... 372
Checking for Memory Artifacts .................................................................. 373
xvi Contents in Detai l
Vulnerable Instructions .......................................................................................... 373
Using the Red Pill Anti-VM Technique ......................................................... 374
Using the No Pill Technique ...................................................................... 375
Querying the I/O Communication Port ..................................................... 375
Using the str Instruction ............................................................................ 377
Anti-VM x86 Instructions .......................................................................... 377
Highlighting Anti-VM in IDA Pro ................................................................ 377
Using ScoopyNG .................................................................................... 379
Tweaking Settings ................................................................................................ 379
Escaping the Virtual Machine ................................................................................ 380
Conclusion .......................................................................................................... 380
Labs ................................................................................................................... 381
18
PACKERS AND UNPACKING 383
Packer Anatomy ................................................................................................... 384
The Unpacking Stub ................................................................................ 384
Loading the Executable ............................................................................ 384
Resolving Imports .................................................................................... 385
The Tail Jump .......................................................................................... 386
Unpacking Illustrated ............................................................................... 386
Identifying Packed Programs .................................................................................. 387
Indicators of a Packed Program ................................................................ 387
Entropy Calculation ................................................................................. 387
Unpacking Options .............................................................................................. 388
Automated Unpacking .......................................................................................... 388
Manual Unpacking ............................................................................................... 389
Rebuilding the Import Table with Import Reconstructor .................................. 390
Finding the OEP ...................................................................................... 391
Repairing the Import Table Manually ......................................................... 395
Tips and Tricks for Common Packers ....................................................................... 397
UPX ....................................................................................................... 397
PECompact ............................................................................................. 397
ASPack .................................................................................................. 398
Petite ..................................................................................................... 398
WinUpack ............................................................................................. 398
Themida ................................................................................................. 400
Analyzing Without Fully Unpacking ........................................................................ 400
Packed DLLs ......................................................................................................... 401
Conclusion .......................................................................................................... 402
Labs .................................................................................................................... 403
PART 6
SPECIAL TOPICS
19
SHELLCODE ANALYSIS 407
Loading Shellcode for Analysis .............................................................................. 408
Contents in Detail xvii
Position-Independent Code .................................................................................... 408
Identifying Execution Location ................................................................................ 409
Using call/pop ....................................................................................... 409
Using fnstenv .......................................................................................... 411
Manual Symbol Resolution .................................................................................... 413
Finding kernel32.dll in Memory ................................................................ 413
Parsing PE Export Data ............................................................................ 415
Using Hashed Exported Names ................................................................ 417
A Full Hello World Example .................................................................................. 418
Shellcode Encodings ............................................................................................. 421
NOP Sleds .......................................................................................................... 422
Finding Shellcode ................................................................................................. 423
Conclusion .......................................................................................................... 424
Labs ................................................................................................................... 425
20
C++ ANALYSIS 427
Object-Oriented Programming ............................................................................... 427
The this Pointer ....................................................................................... 428
Overloading and Mangling ...................................................................... 430
Inheritance and Function Overriding .......................................................... 432
Virtual vs. Nonvirtual Functions .............................................................................. 432
Use of Vtables ........................................................................................ 434
Recognizing a Vtable .............................................................................. 435
Creating and Destroying Objects ........................................................................... 437
Conclusion .......................................................................................................... 438
Labs ................................................................................................................... 439
21
64-BIT MALWARE 441
Why 64-Bit Malware? .......................................................................................... 442
Differences in x64 Architecture .............................................................................. 443
Differences in the x64 Calling Convention and Stack Usage ......................... 444
64-Bit Exception Handling ........................................................................ 447
Windows 32-Bit on Windows 64-Bit ....................................................................... 447
64-Bit Hints at Malware Functionality ...................................................................... 448
Conclusion .......................................................................................................... 449
Labs ................................................................................................................... 450
A
IMPORTANT WINDOWS FUNCTIONS 453
B
TOOLS FOR MALWARE ANALYSIS 465
xviii Contents in Detail
C
SOLUTIONS TO LABS 477
INDEX 733
Lab 1-1 ........................................477
Lab 1-2 ........................................479
Lab 1-3 ........................................480
Lab 1-4 ........................................481
Lab 3-1 ........................................482
Lab 3-2 ........................................485
Lab 3-3 ........................................490
Lab 3-4 ........................................492
Lab 5-1 ........................................494
Lab 6-1 ........................................501
Lab 6-2 ........................................503
Lab 6-3 ........................................507
Lab 6-4 ........................................511
Lab 7-1 ........................................513
Lab 7-2 ........................................517
Lab 7-3 ........................................519
Lab 9-1 ........................................530
Lab 9-2 ........................................539
Lab 9-3 ........................................545
Lab 10-1 ......................................548
Lab 10-2 ......................................554
Lab 10-3 ......................................560
Lab 11-1 ......................................566
Lab 11-2 ......................................571
Lab 11-3 ......................................581
Lab 12-1 ......................................586
Lab 12-2 ......................................590
Lab 12-3 ......................................597
Lab 12-4 ......................................599
Lab 13-1 ...................................... 607
Lab 13-2 ...................................... 612
Lab 13-3 ...................................... 617
Lab 14-1 ...................................... 626
Lab 14-2 ...................................... 632
Lab 14-3 ...................................... 637
Lab 15-1 ...................................... 645
Lab 15-2 ...................................... 646
Lab 15-3 ...................................... 652
Lab 16-1 ...................................... 655
Lab 16-2 ...................................... 660
Lab 16-3 ...................................... 665
Lab 17-1 ...................................... 670
Lab 17-2 ...................................... 673
Lab 17-3 ...................................... 678
Lab 18-1 ...................................... 684
Lab 18-2 ...................................... 685
Lab 18-3 ...................................... 686
Lab 18-4 ...................................... 689
Lab 18-5 ...................................... 691
Lab 19-1 ...................................... 696
Lab 19-2 ...................................... 699
Lab 19-3 ...................................... 703
Lab 20-1 ...................................... 712
Lab 20-2 ...................................... 713
Lab 20-3 ...................................... 717
Lab 21-1 ...................................... 723
Lab 21-2 ...................................... 728

INDEX 733

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