Сообщение

Peter Shirley and Steve Marschner - Fundamentals of Computer Graphics - 3rd Edition [July 2009, PDF, ENG]

Сообщение Солнышко » 30 янв 2018, 00:28

Fundamentals of Computer Graphics - 3rd Edition
Год: July 2009
Автор: Peter Shirley and Steve Marschner
Жанр: CG
Издательство: CRC Press
ISBN: 978-1-4398-6552-1
Язык: Английский
Формат: PDF
Качество: Отсканированные страницы + слой распознанного текста
Интерактивное оглавление: Да
Количество страниц: 785
Описание: This edition of Fundamentals of Computer Graphics adds four new contributed chapters and contains substantial reorganizations and improvements to the core material. The new chapters add coverage of implicit modeling and of two important graphics applications: games and information visualization. The fourth new contributed chapter is a major upgrade to the material on color science. As with the chapters added in the second edition, we have chosen the contributors both for their expertise and for their clear way of expressing ideas. We have made a number of changes to the early chapters of the book, integrating the second author’s experience teaching introductory graphics at Cornell using the first and second editions. Most of these have been revised and updated, particularly the chapters on images, viewing, ray tracing, the graphics pipeline, and the material on triangle meshes. Some of the original material from these chapters has been reorganized, sometimes with topics appearing in different chapters than in the previous editions. Our aim in this reorganization has been to move the elementary material towards the beginning. In our thinking, Chapters 2 through 8 constitute the “core core,” taking the straight and narrow path through what is absolutely required for understanding how images get onto the screen using the complementary approaches of ray tracing and rasterization. Ray tracing is covered first, since it is the simplest way to generate images of 3D scenes, followed by the mathematical machinery required for the graphics pipeline, then the pipeline itself. After that, the “outer core” covers other topics that would commonly be included in an introductory class. For example, ray tracing is split into two chapters, with the more advanced material now in Chapter 13. The material on spatial data structures (some formerly under Ray Tracing and Hidden Surfaces) is consolidated in Chapter 12 together with an expanded section on triangle meshes. In all these revisions, we have endeavored to retain the informal, intuitive style of presentation that characterizes the earlier editions, while at the same time improving consistency, precision, and completeness. We hope the reader will find the result is a better platform for a variety of courses in computer graphics.
1 Introduction 1
1.1 Graphics Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2 Major Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
1.3 Graphics APIs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.4 Graphics Pipeline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.5 Numerical Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
1.6 Effi ciency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
1.7 Designing and Coding Graphics Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
2 Miscellaneous Math 13
2.1 Sets and Mappings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
2.2 Solving Quadratic Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.3 Trigonometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
2.4 Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
2.5 Curves and Surfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
2.6 Linear Interpolation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
2.7 Triangles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
3 Raster Images 53
3.1 Raster Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
3.2 Images, Pixels, and Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
3.3 RGB Color . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
3.4 Alpha Compositing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
4 Ray Tracing 69
4.1 The Basic Ray-Tracing Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
4.2 Perspective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
4.3 Computing Viewing Rays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
4.4 Ray-Object Intersection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
4.5 Shading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
4.6 A Ray-Tracing Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
4.7 Shadows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
4.8 Ideal Specular Refl ection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
4.9 Historical Notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
5 Linear Algebra 91
5.1 Determinants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
5.2 Matrices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
5.3 Computing with Matrices and Determinants . . . . . . . . . . . 98
5.4 Eigenvalues and Matrix Diagonalization . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
6 Transformation Matrices 111
6.1 2D Linear Transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
6.2 3D Linear Transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
6.3 Translation and Affi ne Transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
6.4 Inverses of Transformation Matrices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
6.5 Coordinate Transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
7 Viewing 141
7.1 Viewing Transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
7.2 Projective Transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148
7.3 Perspective Projection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151
7.4 Some Properties of the Perspective Transform . . . . . . . . . . 156
7.5 Field-of-View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
8 The Graphics Pipeline 161
8.1 Rasterization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
8.2 Operations Before and After Rasterization . . . . . . . . . . . . 173
8.3 Simple Antialiasing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
8.4 Culling Primitives for Effi ciency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
9 Signal Processing 185
9.1 Digital Audio: Sampling in 1D . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
9.2 Convolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
9.3 Convolution Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
9.4 Signal Processing for Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
9.5 Sampling Theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
10 Surface Shading 233
10.1 Diffuse Shading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
10.2 Phong Shading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
10.3 Artistic Shading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
11 Texture Mapping 243
11.1 3D Texture Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
11.2 2D Texture Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
11.3 Texture Mapping for Rasterized Triangles . . . . . . . . . . . . 252
11.4 Bump Textures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255
11.5 Displacement Mapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
11.6 Environment Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
11.7 Shadow Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
12 Data Structures for Graphics 261
12.1 Triangle Meshes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262
12.2 Scene Graphs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276
12.3 Spatial Data Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278
12.4 BSP Trees for Visibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
12.5 Tiling Multidimensional Arrays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297
13 More Ray Tracing 303
13.1 Transparency and Refraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304
13.2 Instancing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307
13.3 Constructive Solid Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
13.4 Distribution Ray Tracing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
14 Sampling 317
14.1 Integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317
14.2 Continuous Probability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322
14.3 Monte Carlo Integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326
14.4 Choosing Random Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329
15 Curves 339
15.1 Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339
15.2 Curve Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345
15.3 Polynomial Pieces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 348
15.4 Putting Pieces Together . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 356
15.5 Cubics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359
15.6 Approximating Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365
15.7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382
16 Implicit Modeling 385
16.1 Implicit Functions, Skeletal Primitives
and Summation Blending . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386
16.2 Rendering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394
16.3 Space Partitioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 395
16.4 More on Blending . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 401
16.5 Constructive Solid Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 402
16.6 Warping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404
16.7 Precise Contact Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406
16.8 The BlobTree . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408
16.9 Interactive Implicit Modeling Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 410
17 Computer Animation 413
17.1 Principles of Animation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414
17.2 Keyframing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 418
17.3 Deformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426
17.4 Character Animation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427
17.5 Physics-Based Animation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433
17.6 Procedural Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436
17.7 Groups of Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 439
18 Using Graphics Hardware 445
18.1 What Is Graphics Hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445
18.2 Describing Geometry for the Hardware . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446
18.3 Processing Geometry into Pixels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 453
19 Building Interactive Graphics Applications 467
19.1 The Ball Shooting Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 468
19.2 Programming Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 470
19.3 The Modelview-Controller Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . 487
19.4 Example Implementations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 499
19.5 Applying Our Results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 509
20 Light 517
20.1 Radiometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 517
20.2 Transport Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 526
20.3 Photometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 528
21 Color 531
21.1 Colorimetry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 533
21.2 Color Spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 542
21.3 Chromatic Adaptation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 548
21.4 Color Appearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 552
22 Visual Perception 553
22.1 Vision Science . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 554
22.2 Visual Sensitivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 555
22.3 Spatial Vision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 571
22.4 Objects, Locations, and Events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 585
22.5 Picture Perception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 593
23 Tone Reproduction 597
23.1 Classifi cation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 600
23.2 Dynamic Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 601
23.3 Color . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 603
23.4 Image Formation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 605
23.5 Frequency-Based Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 605
23.6 Gradient-Domain Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 607
23.7 Spatial Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 608
23.8 Division . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 610
23.9 Sigmoids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 611
23.10 Other Approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 616
23.11 Night Tonemapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 619
23.12 Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 620
24 Global Illumination 623
24.1 Particle Tracing for Lambertian Scenes . . . . . . . . . . . . . 624
24.2 Path Tracing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 627
24.3 Accurate Direct Lighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 629
25 Reflection Models 637
25.1 Real-World Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 637
25.2 Implementing Refl ection Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 639
25.3 Specular Refl ection Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 641
25.4 Smooth Layered Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 642
25.5 Rough Layered Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 645
26 Computer Graphics in Games 653
26.1 Platforms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 653
26.2 Limited Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 655
26.3 Optimization Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 659
26.4 Game Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 660
26.5 The Game Production Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 664
27 Visualization 675
27.1 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 677
27.2 Data Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 678
27.3 Human-Centered Design Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 680
27.4 Visual Encoding Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 682
27.5 Interaction Principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 689
27.6 Composite and Adjacent Views . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 690
27.7 Data Reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 696
27.8 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 701
28 Spatial-Field Visualization 709
28.1 2D Scalar Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 710
28.2 3D Scalar Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 711
References 721
Index 745
Доп. информация: <Ссылки на внешние ресурсы запрещены>

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