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Cooper A. - About Face 3. The Essentials of Interaction Design [2007, PDF, ENG]

Сообщение Солнышко » 30 янв 2018, 00:52

About Face 3: The Essentials of Interaction Design
#77Год выпуска: 2007
Автор: Alan Cooper, Robert Reimann and Dave Cronin
Жанр: User interfaces (Computer systems)
Издательство: Wiley Publishing, Inc
ISBN: 978-0-470-08411-3
Формат: PDF
Качество: eBook (изначально компьютерное)
Язык: английский
Количество страниц: 651
Описание: This book is about interaction design—the practice of designing interactive digital products, environments, systems, and services. Like many design disciplines, interaction design is concerned with form.However,first and foremost, interaction design focuses on something that traditional design disciplines do not often explore:the design ofbehavior.
Most design affectshuman behavior:Architecture is concerned with how people use physical space, and graphic design often attempts to motivate or facilitate a response.But now,with the ubiquity ofsilicon-enabled products—from computers to cars and phones—we routinely create products that exhibitcomplex behavior.
Доп. информация: книга посвящена проектированию взаимодействия - практике создания цифровых интерактивных продуктов, сред, систем и служб и проектированию поведения, в частности. В ней описывается конкретный подход к проектированию взаимодействия получивший название «Целеориентированный метод» (Goal-Directed Design, © Alan Cooper), при котором акцент ставится на первоначальных мотивах использования продукта людьми, а также учитываются их ожидания, опыт и способности, - все то, что помогает находить решения, которые люди находят мощными и приятными.
От начала и до конца книги авторы старались более наглядно рассказывать о концепциях, методах и проблемах визуальной части пользовательских интерфейсов, а также о проблемах, возникающих за пределами настольных компьютеров
(Алан Купер об интерфейсе. Основы проектирования взаимодействия)
About the Authors
Foreword: The Postindustrial World
Acknowledgments
Introduction to the Third Edition
Digital Products Need Better Design Methods
The creation ofdigital products today
Why are these products so bad?
The Evolution ofDesign in Manufacturing
Planning and Designing Behavior
Recognizing User Goals

Goals versus tasks and activities
Designing to meet goals in context
The Goal-Directed Design Process
Bridging the gap
A process overview
Goals,not features,are the key to product success
Implementation Models
User Mental Models
Represented Models
Most Software Conforms to Implementation Models

User interfaces designed by engineers follow the implementation model
Mathematical thinking leads to implementation model interfaces
Mechanical-Age versus Information-Age Represented Models
Mechanical-Age representations
New technology demands new representations
Mechanical-Age representations degrade user interaction
Improving on Mechanical-Age representations:An example
Perpetual Intermediates
Designing for Different Experience Levels

What beginners need
Getting beginners on board
What experts need
What perpetual intermediates need
Qualitative versus Quantitative Research
The value ofqualitative research
Types ofqualitative research
Ethnographic Interviews:Interviewing and Observing Users
Contextual inquiry
Improving on contextual inquiry
Preparing for ethnographic interviews
Conducting ethnographic interviews
Other Types ofResearch
Focus groups
Market demographics and market segments
Usability and user testing
Card sorting
Task analysis
Why Model?
Personas
Strengths ofpersonas as a design tool
Personas are based on research
Personas are represented as individual people
Personas represent groups ofusers
Personas explore ranges ofbehavior
Personas must have motivations
Personas can also represent nonusers
Personas and other user models
When rigorous personas aren’t possible:Provisional personas
Goals
Goals motivate usage patterns
Goals should be inferred from qualitative data
User goals and cognitive processing
The three types ofuser goals
User goals are user motivations
Types ofgoals
Successful products meet user goals first
Constructing Personas
Step 1:Identify behavioral variables
Step 2:Map interview subjects to behavioral variables
Step 3:Identify significant behavior patterns
Step 4:Synthesize characteristics and relevant goals
Step 5:Check for completeness and redundancy
Step 6:Expand description ofattributes and behaviors
Step 7:Designate persona types
Other Models
Workflow models
Artifact models
Physical models
Scenarios:Narrative as a Design Tool
Scenarios in design
Using personas in scenarios
Different types ofscenarios
Persona-based scenarios versus use cases
Requirements:The “What”ofInteraction Design
Requirements Definition Using Personas and Scenarios
Step 1:Creating problem and vision statements
Step 2:Brainstorming
Step 3:Identifying persona expectations
Step 4:Constructing context scenarios
Step 5:Identifying requirements
The Design Framework
Defining the interaction framework
Defining the visual design framework
Defining the industrial design framework
Refining the Form and Behavior
Design Validation and Usability Testing

When to test:Summative and formative evaluations
Conducting formative usability tests
Designer involvement in usability studies
Interaction Design Principles
Principles operate at different levels ofdetail
Behavioral and interface-level principles minimize work
Design Values
Ethical interaction design
Purposeful interaction design
Pragmatic interaction design
Elegant interaction design
Interaction Design Patterns
Architectural patterns and interaction design
Recording and using interaction design patterns
Types ofinteraction design patterns
Posture
Designing Desktop Software
Designing for the Web

Informational Web sites
Transactional Web sites
Web applications
Internet-enabled applications
Intranets
Other Platforms
General design principles
Designing for handhelds
Designing for kiosks
Designing for television-based interfaces
Designing for automotive interfaces
Designing for appliances
Designing for audible interfaces
Flow and Transparency
Designing Harmonious Interactions
GUI Excise
Excise and expert users
Training wheels
“Pure”excise
Visual excise
Determining what is excise
Stopping the Proceedings
Errors,notifiers,and confirmation messages
Making users ask permission
Common Excise Traps
Navigation Is Excise

Navigation among multiple screens,views,or pages
Navigation between panes
Navigation between tools and menus
Navigation ofinformation
Improving Navigation
Reduce the number ofplaces to go
Provide signposts
Provide overviews
Provide appropriate mapping ofcontrols to functions
Inflect your interface to match user needs
Avoid hierarchies
Designing Considerate Products
Considerate products take an interest
Considerate products are deferential
Considerate products are forthcoming
Considerate products use common sense
Considerate products anticipate human needs
Considerate products are conscientious
Considerate products don’t burden you with their personal problems
Considerate products keep us informed
Considerate products are perceptive
Considerate products are self-confident
Considerate products don’t ask a lot ofquestions
Considerate products fail gracefully
Considerate products know when to bend the rules
Considerate products take responsibility
Designing Smart Products
Putting the idle cycles to work
Smart products have a memory
Task coherence
Actions to remember
Applying memory to your applications
Interface Paradigms
Implementation-centric interfaces
Metaphoric interfaces
Idiomatic interfaces
Further Limitations ofMetaphors
Finding good metaphors
The problems with global metaphors
Macs and metaphors:A revisionist view
Building Idioms
Manual Affordances

Semantics ofmanual affordances
Fulfilling user expectations ofaffordances
Art,Visual Interface Design,and Other Design Disciplines
Graphic design and user interfaces
Visual information design
Industrial design
The Building Blocks ofVisual Interface Design
Shape
Size
Value
Hue
Orientation
Texture
Position
Principles ofVisual Interface Design
Use visual properties to group elements and provide clear hierarchy
Provide visual structure and flow at each level oforganization
Use cohesive,consistent,and contextually appropriate imagery
Integrate style and function comprehensively and purposefully
Avoid visual noise and clutter
Keep it simple
Text in visual interfaces
Color in visual interfaces
Visual interface design for handhelds and other devices
Principles ofVisual Information Design
Enforce visual comparisons
Show causality
Show multiple variables
Integrate text,graphics,and data in one display
Ensure the quality,relevance,and integrity ofthe content
Show things adjacently in space,not stacked in time
Don’t de-quantify quantifiable data
Consistency and Standards
Benefits ofinterface standards
Risks ofinterface standards
Standards,guidelines,and rules ofthumb
When to violate guidelines
Consistency and standards across applications
Storage and Retrieval Systems
Storage and Retrieval in the Physical World

Everything in its place:Storage and retrieval by location
Indexed retrieval
Storage and Retrieval in the Digital World
Relational Databases versus Digital Soup

Organizing the unorganizable
Problems with databases
The attribute-based alternative
Natural Language Output:An Ideal Interface for
Attribute-Based Retrieval
Users and Undo
User mental models ofmistakes
Undo enables exploration
Designing an Undo Facility
Types and Variants ofUndo
Incremental and procedural actions
Blind and explanatory Undo
Single and multiple Undo
Redo
Group multiple Undo
Other Models for Undo-Like Behavior
Comparison:What would this look like?
Category-specific Undo
Deleted data buffers
Versioning and reversion
Freezing
Undo-ProofOperations
What’s Wrong with Saving Changes to Files?
Problems with the Implementation Model

Closing documents and removing unwanted changes
Save As
Archiving
Implementation Model versus Mental Model
Dispensing with the Implementation Model
Designing with a Unified File Model

Automatically saving
Creating a copy
Naming and renaming
Placing and moving
Specifying the stored format
Reversing changes
Abandoning all changes
Creating a version
A new File menu
A new name for the File menu
Communicating status
Are Disks and File Systems a Feature?
Time for Change
Data Integrity versus Data Immunity
Data immunity
What about missing data?
Data entry and fudgeability
Auditing versus Editing
Direct Manipulation
Pointing Devices

Using the mouse
Mouse buttons
Pointing and clicking with a mouse
Mouse-up and mouse-down events
Pointing and the Cursor
Pliancy and hinting
Selection
Command ordering and selection
Discrete and contiguous selection
Insertion and replacement
Visual indication ofselection
Drag-and-Drop
Visual feedback for drag-and-drop
Other drag-and-drop interaction issues
Control Manipulation
Palette Tools

Modal tools
Charged cursor tools
Object Manipulation
Repositioning
Resizing and reshaping
3D object manipulation
Object Connection
PARC and the Alto
PARC’s Principles

Visual metaphors
Avoiding modes
Overlapping windows
Microsoft and Tiled Windows
Full-Screen Applications
Multipaned Applications
Designing with Windows

Unnecessary rooms
Necessary rooms
Windows pollution
Window States
MDI versus SDI
Avoiding Control-Laden Dialog Boxes
Imperative Controls

Buttons
Butcons
Hyperlinks
Selection Controls
Check boxes
Flip-flop buttons:A selection idiom to avoid
Radio buttons
Combutcons
List controls
Combo boxes
Tree controls
Entry Controls
Bounded and unbounded entry controls
Spinners
Dials and Sliders
Thumbwheels
Other bounded entry controls
Unbounded entry:Text edit controls
Display Controls
Text controls
Scrollbars
Splitters
Drawers and levers
A Bit ofHistory
The command-line interface
Sequential hierarchical menus
The Lotus 1-2-3 interface
Drop-down and pop-up menus
Menus Today:The Pedagogic Vector
Standard menus for desktop applications
File (or document)
Edit
Windows
Help
Optional Menus
View
Insert
Settings
Format
Tools
Menu Idioms
Cascading menus
Menus
The ribbon
Bang menus
Disabled menu items
Checkmark menu items
Icons on menus
Accelerators
Access keys
Menus on other platforms
Toolbars:Visible,Immediate Commands
Toolbars versus Menus
Toolbars and Toolbar Controls

Icons versus text on toolbars
The problem with labeling butcons
Explaining Toolbar Controls
Balloon help:A first attempt
ToolTips
Disabling toolbar controls
Evolution ofthe Toolbar
State-indicating toolbar controls
Menus on toolbars
Movable toolbars
Customizable toolbars
The ribbon
Contextual toolbars
Appropriate Uses for Dialog Boxes
Dialog Box Basics
Modal Dialog Boxes
Modeless Dialog Boxes

Modeless dialog issues
Two solutions for better modeless dialogs
Four Different Purposes for Dialogs
Property dialog boxes
Function dialog boxes
Process dialog boxes
Eliminating process dialogs
Bulletin dialog boxes
Managing Content in Dialog Boxes
Tabbed dialogs
Expanding dialogs
Cascading dialogs
Error Dialogs
Why we have so many error messages
What’s wrong with error messages
Eliminating error messages
Aren’t there exceptions?
Improving error messages:The last resort
Alert Dialogs:Announcing the Obvious
Confirmation Dialog

The dialog that cried “Wolf!”
Eliminating confirmations
Replacing Dialogs:Rich Modeless Feedback
Rich visual modeless feedback
Audible feedback
Command Vectors and Working Sets
Immediate and pedagogic vectors
Working sets and personas
Graduating Users from Beginners to Intermediates
World vectors and head vectors
Memorization vectors
Personalization and Configuration
Idiosyncratically Modal Behavior
Localization and Globalization
Galleries and Templates
Help

The index
Shortcuts and overview
Not for beginners
Modeless and interactive help
Wizards
“Intelligent”agents
Afterword: On Collaboration
Appendix ADesign Principles
Appendix B Bibliography
Index

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