Производитель: Net Master Class
Год выпуска: 2006
Frame Relay support for multiple protocols including TCP, IP, IPX and DECNET.
History (per FRF).
Theory of Operations (UNI, NNI, DLCI).
Advantages over TDM.
Access speeds: dial through T3.
Frame over DSL (over ATM core) see newedge networks.
Block 1 VOD 2: DTE to DTE Communications
+ Encapsulation per interface/per DLCI
+ Show interface
+ Show frame PVC
+ Backup interface
Encapsulation Types – Which method of specifying the upper layer protocol will be used?
+ Cisco (default)
+ Type set on physical interface, or on end of interface-DLCI, or on end of map statement.
+ Must match end-to-end in that non-Cisco routers (Juniper) use only IETF.
+ Cisco routers will work even with mismatch, since the router does understand both.
+ Disabled by default on frame relay interfaces
+ Can be enabled per interface or sub-interface “cdp enable”
+ Frame network will be transparent to cdp
+ Enabling on physical does NOT enable it for sub-interfaces
Block 1 VOD 3: Local Management Interface
Overview: purpose and operation
+ Status information between Frame-Relay devices (UNI, NNI)
+ Message types
# Status Enquiry sent by DTE
# Status Message Frame sent by DCE
# Update Status Message
Types: ANSI, ITU, Cisco
+ ansi (aka Annex-D)
+ q933a (aka Annex-A)
Show and Debugs
Number of PVCs limited by MTU.
Block 1 VOD 4: Frame-Relay Mapping
Purpose, multipoint versus point-to-point
Dynamic (Inverse ARP)
+ Basic Operation
+ Options: frame inarp interval / ip
+ Clear frame inarp
+ Local Address
Map bridge / clns / IPv6
Show frame map
Block 1 VOD 5: Full Mesh vs. Hub and Spoke
+ TTL, Broadcast domain segmentation
+ Mixing static and dynamic maps
+ MTU Issues
# Controller MTU vs IP MTU
# Demo: ping with high MTU, 4000 byte packet from spoke to spoke with default mtu at hub. How get packet thru.
# Ping with df-bit set, demo “M” response. See debug ip icmp on hub.
Quad Zero Maps
Block 1 VOD 6: Frame-Relay Switching in IOS
Real life switching equipment
+ 2522, “virtual switch” with tunnel
+ Set clock rate for back-to-back cables
Dedicated Frame-Relay switch
+ Set LMI type (autosense only on DTE ints)
+ Frame route statements
+ Show frame route
Using the Connect syntax
Hybrid Switching (DCE-DTE)
+ One side is interface type dce
+ Same DLCI used in map statement on each side
+ No frame route statements
+ Could use interface-dlci on sub-interfaces, but intf-type always goes on major interface, not sub-interface!
+ See Document ID 14194
Back-to-Back Switching (DTE-DTE)
+ No frame switching or int type dce
+ No Keepalive disables LMI for that interface
+ Example uses interface-dlci with POINT-TO-POINT ints / could use maps.
+ Inverse arp still operates: do not need lmi for inverse arp
+ See Cisco Document ID 14193
Switching over a tunnel
+ No frame config on tunnel
+ Outside interfaces have frame route of incoming DLCI to tunnel DLCI. Tunnel DLCI is same on both sides
+ Example shows route statements on a layer 3 DTE interface and on an interface configured as DCE
+ See: “Switching over an IP Tunnel” in the WAN Configuration Guide for Frame Relay
+ Completed “Virtual Switch” Example
Block 1 VOD 7: Bridging over Frame-Relay
STP Issues on multipoint
Block 2 VOD 1: PPP over Frame-Relay
PPP over Frame-Relay
+ Rfc 1973
+ Offers authentication, no map requirement, POINT-TO-POINT interface for routing protocols.
+ PPP over Frame Relay is supported only for serial interfaces.
+ Supports only IP (not IPv6)
+ Configure virtual-template interface
+ Associate DLCI with virtual-template
+ Note peer neighbor route
+ Show int virtual-access 1 to see interface statistics
+ Show frame pvc
+ Show interface virtual-access
+ DOiT Lab 8
MLPoFR for Voice over Frame Relay/ATM interworking
+ Goal: reduce delay and jitter
+ Enable queueing as desired and FRTS
+ Create a virtual template and interface multilink
+ Associate the VT with the bundle and the PVC
Block 2 VOD 2: End-to-End Keepalive
Useful when LMI is not end-to-end (no keepalive?)
Modes: bidirectional, request, reply, passive-reply
Required: set mode in map-class Frame-Relay
Configurable error threshold and event window
Block 2 VOD 3: Auto-install over Frame-Relay
Configuration of target router No dhcp pool (broken?)
+ ip helper
+ bootp, not dhcp
+ frame map
cisconet.cfg and rtr.cfg files on a tftp server
Block 3 VOD 1: RIP, EIGRP and BGP over Frame-Relay
+ Split horizon
+ Neighbor statements for spoke-to-spoke
+ Split Horizon
+ Neighbor statements for spoke-to-spoke
+ Bandwidth-percent: physical/point-to-point/multipoint
+ Only unicast
+ Multihop for spoke-to-spoke
Block 3 VOD 2: Running OSPF on Frame-Relay
OSPF Network types on Frame-Relay
+ Default NBMA for physical, multipoint
# DR at hub
# advantages on hub and spoke
# host routes
+ Mixing network types
Block 4 VOD 1: Frame-Relay Traffic Shaping
Purpose: buffer out-of-profile, smooth bursts
Token bucket algorithm
+ CIR, Bc, Be, Tc, holdq
Demonstration with generator
+ Show frame pvc XXX
Traffic-shape map-class command
Block 4 VOD 2: MQC on Frame-Relay
Policy application: physical/logical/PVC
Classification and Marking
+ Match DLCI
Frame-Relay Queuing Techniques
+ Maximum reservable bandwidth
Shape average / shape peak
Block 4 VOD 3: VOIP over Frame-Relay
Using Router Auto QoS Macro
+ Classification and marking
+ FRTS parameters
+ Priority queuing options/config
+ FRF.12 fragmentation
Block 4 VOD 4: Prioritizing Frame-Relay traffic
Traffic type on a PVC
+ Ip rtp priority
+ Prioritize DLCIs. Ina map-class assign a DLCI High, Medium, Normal or Low
+ At interface, assign priority queue limits
DLCI priority levels
+ Different traffic types placed on different DLCIs, so different CIR for each type.
+ Can use with custom or priority queueing to manage the bandwidth
+ Permits multiple DLCIs on a point-to-point. Mapping provided by priority list.
+ Broadcast queue has priority when transmitting below configured maximum. Maximum in bps and packets/sec. No more than the maximum is provided. A policed priority queue for broadcast traffic.
+ When configured, debug frame packet says “broadcast dequeue” for each RIP V2 packet. So includes multicast.
+ Show interface shows broadcast queue.
+ Test: with frame-relay broadcast-queue 200 1000 1 extended ping to 188.8.131.52 with zero timeout filled queue and then doled out the pings. Can also ping 172.16.14.255 to fill queue.
+ Buffers traffic replicated for multiple DLCIs, not original packet, which goes through normal queue.
+ Sh int shows number of packets in queue, number dropped and original number
Block 4 VOD 5: Enhanced Frame-Relay Switching
Traffic policing on the Frame-Relay switched interface
+ Map-class to set CIR, Bc and Be
+ All must be set
+ Up to CIR transmitted, between CIR and EIR set DE, over EIR drop
+ Apply to interface or PVC
+ Activate Frame-Relay policing
Frame-Relay congestion management (switched)
+ Can drop traffic marked DE when threshold percent of queue depth is reached
+ Can set FECN and BECN bits when ECN queue depth percent is reached.
Аудио: 0x0055 MPEG-1 Layer 3 44100Hz 192 kb/s tot , Two Mono Channels