Автор: David Christian / Дэвид Кристиан
Издательство: The Teaching Company
Продолжительность: 48 лекций по 30 минут
Описание: История с самого начала.
1. What Is Big History?
2. Moving across Multiple Scales
3. Simplicity and Complexity
4. Evidence and the Nature of Science
5. Threshold 1—Origins of Big Bang Cosmology
6. How Did Everything Begin?
7. Threshold 2—The First Stars and Galaxies
8. Threshold 3—Making Chemical Elements
9. Threshold 4—The Earth and the Solar System
10. The Early Earth—A Short History
11. Plate Tectonics and the Earth's Geography
12. Threshold 5—Life
13. Darwin and Natural Selection
14. The Evidence for Natural Selection
15. The Origins of Life
16. Life on Earth—Single-celled Organisms
17. Life on Earth—Multi-celled Organisms
19. Evidence on Hominine Evolution
20. Threshold 6—What Makes Humans Different?
21. Homo sapiens—The First Humans
22. Paleolithic Lifeways
23. Change in the Paleolithic Era
24. Threshold 7—Agriculture
25. The Origins of Agriculture
26. The First Agrarian Societies
27. Power and Its Origins
28. Early Power Structures
29. From Villages to Cities
30. Sumer—The First Agrarian Civilization
31. Agrarian Civilizations in Other Regions
32. The World That Agrarian Civilizations Made
33. Long Trends—Expansion and State Power
34. Long Trends—Rates of Innovation
35. Long Trends—Disease and Malthusian Cycles
36. Comparing the World Zones
37. The Americas in the Later Agrarian Era
38. Threshold 8—The Modern Revolution
39. The Medieval Malthusian Cycle, 500–1350
40. The Early Modern Cycle, 1350–1700
41. Breakthrough—The Industrial Revolution
42. Spread of the Industrial Revolution to 1900
43. The 20th Century
44. The World That the Modern Revolution Made
45. Human History and the Biosphere
46. The Next 100 Years
47. The Next Millennium and the Remote Future
48. Big History—Humans in the Cosmos
Imagine you are traveling through time. Consider the following episodes:
At 13.7 billion years ago, the Universe suddenly appears, growing from the size of an atom to the size of a galaxy in a fraction of a second.
At 10 billion years ago, hydrogen atoms and helium atoms fuse at the center of a supernova to create the building blocks of the physical world.
At 4.6 billion years ago, a cloud of matter collapses to produce a star—our Sun. Earth and the other planets in our solar system form out of the remaining bits of matter swirling around the new star.
At 67 million years ago, an asteroid collides with the Earth, wiping out the dinosaurs, and leaves territory open for the rise of a minor order of organisms, the early mammals.
At 100,000–60,000 years ago, a species of hominines—bipedal ape-like creatures— begins to move out of its home territory in Africa and into the Asian continent.
Today, the descendants of those first hominines—homo sapiens—live in nearly every ecological niche. We fly through the air in planes, communicate instantaneously over immense distances, and develop theories about the creation of the Universe.
Each of these scenarios is just one episode in an ever-evolving story: the history of everything. It's a story you'll hear—in its monumental entirety—in Big History: The Big Bang, Life on Earth, and the Rise of Humanity.
Taught by historian David Christian, Big History offers a unique opportunity to view human history in the context of the many histories that surround it. Over the course of 48 thought-provoking lectures, he'll serve as your guide as you traverse the sweeping expanse of cosmic history—13.7 billion years of it—starting with the big bang and traveling through time and space to the present moment.
A Grand Synthesis of Knowledge
Have you ever wondered: How do various scholarly discourses—cosmology, geology, anthropology, biology, history—fit together?
Big History answers that question by weaving a single story from a variety of scholarly disciplines. Like traditional creation stories told by the world's great religions and mythologies, Big History provides a map of our place in space and time. But it does so using the insights and knowledge of modern science, as synthesized by a renowned historian.
This is a story scholars have been able to tell only since the middle of the last century, thanks to the development of new dating techniques in the mid-1900s. As Professor Christian explains, this story will continue to grow and change as scientists and historians accumulate new knowledge about our shared past.
To tell this epic, Professor Christian organizes the history of creation into eight "thresholds." Each threshold marks a point in history when something truly new appeared and forms never before seen began to arise.
Starting with the first threshold, the creation of the Universe, Professor Christian traces the developments of new, more complex entities, including:
The creation of the first stars (threshold 2)
The origin of life (threshold 5)
The development of the human species (threshold 6)
The moment of modernity (threshold 8).
In the final lectures, you'll even gain a glimpse into the future as you review speculations offered by scientists about where our species, our world, and our Universe may be heading.
Getting the "Big" Picture
While you may have heard parts of this story before in courses on geology, history, anthropology, biology, cosmology, and other scholarly disciplines, Big History provides more than just a recap. This course will expand the scope of your perspective on the past and alter the way you think about history and the world around you.
"Because of the scale on which we look at the past, you should not expect to find in it many of the familiar details, names, and personalities that you'll find in other types of historical teaching and writing," explains Professor Christian. "For example, the French Revolution and the Renaissance will barely get a mention. They'll zoom past in a blur. You'll barely see them. Instead, what we're going to see are some less familiar aspects of the past. ... We'll be looking, above all, for the very large patterns, the shape of the past."
Thanks to this grand perspective, you'll uncover the remarkable parallels and connections among disciplines that remain to be explored when you view history on a large scale. How is the creation of stars like the building of cities? How is the big bang like the invention of agriculture? These are the kinds of connections you'll find yourself pondering as you undergo the grand shift in perspective afforded by Big History.
Along the way, you'll encounter intriguing tidbits that put the grand scale of this story in perspective, such as:
The entire expanse of human civilization—5,000 years—makes up a mere 2 percent of the human experience.
Approximately 98 percent of human history occurred before the invention of agriculture.
All the matter we know of in the Universe is likely to be no more than 1 billionth of the actual matter that was originally created.
The Earth's Moon was probably created by a collision between the young Earth and a Mars-sized protoplanet.
At present, we cannot drill deeper than about 7 miles into the Earth, which is just 0.2% of the distance to the center (4,000 miles away).
Between 1000 C.E. and 2000 C.E., human populations rose by a factor of 24.
Traveling in a jet plane, it would take 5 million years to get from our solar system to the next nearest star.
The Story We Tell about Ourselves
"To understand ourselves," says Professor Christian, "we need to know the very large story, the largest story of all." And that, perhaps, is one of the greatest benefits of Big History: It provides a thought-provoking way to help us understand our own place within the Universe.
From humankind's place within the context of evolutionary history to our impact on the larger biosphere—both now and in our species' past—this course offers a broad yet nuanced examination of our place in creation. It also poses a profound question: Is it possible that our species is the only entity created by the Universe with the capacity to ponder its mysteries?
There is, perhaps, no more profound question to ask, and no better guide on this quest for understanding than Professor Christian. A pioneer in this approach to understanding history, Professor Christian has made big history his personal project for more than two decades. Working with experts in a variety of fields, he designed and taught some of the first big history courses, and has published widely on the topic.
Accept his invitation to get the big picture on Big History, and prepare for a journey through time and across space, from the first moments of existence to the distant reaches of the far future.
The Teaching Company was founded in 1990 by Thomas M. Rollins, former Chief Counsel of the United States Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.
Years earlier, as a Harvard Law School student, Rollins had an unforgettable experience that opened his eyes to the extraordinary power of a great lecturer captured on tape.
Rollins was facing an important exam in the Federal Rules of Evidence but was not well prepared. He managed to obtain videotapes of 10 one-hour lectures by a noted authority on the subject, Professor Irving Younger.
"I dreaded what seemed certain to be boring," Rollins says. "I thought that few subjects could be as dull as the Federal Rules of Evidence. But I had no other way out."
Rollins planted himself in front of the TV and played all 10 hours nearly non-stop. The lectures, he says, "were outrageously insightful, funny, and thorough." Watching Professor Younger's lectures was one of Rollins's best experiences as a student.
Rollins made an "A" in the course. And he never forgot the unique power of recorded lectures by a great teacher.
After many years of government service, Rollins founded The Teaching Company in 1990 to ignite people's passion for lifelong learning by offering great courses taught by great professors.
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