Тип раздаваемого материала: Видеоурок
Продолжительность: 24 лекции по 30 минут
Год выпуска: 1996
Описание: В данном курсе лекций рассказывается о методах археологических исследований, о способах проведения раскопок, о датировке образцов и пр.
Taught by Susan Foster McCarter
Johns Hopkins University
Ph.D., Brandeis University
Have you ever found yourself, perhaps after visiting a museum, an art gallery, or a historic site, wanting to know more about a long-lost civilization, a fortress that was bitterly fought over ages ago, or a ruined city sitting mute but poignant in the midst of what was once a thriving human world but is now a trackless jungle or a lonely plain?
If such experiences have gripped your imagination, then you have probably also wondered how, more generally, groups of human beings dealt at different times and places with the challenges of their environments, and how, in turn, the environment shaped past peoples across the unchronicled millennia of human prehistory.
Writing was invented only about 5,000 years ago. Since scientists can trace humanity's origins back 500 times as farΓΓé¼ΓÇ¥to almost 2.5 million years agoΓΓé¼ΓÇ¥sometimes the desire to explore questions like these cannot be satisfied by the pages of written history. The place for you to turn, as this course will show, is to archaeology.
Part meticulous empirical science and part inspired detective work, archaeology seeks answers about the obscure reaches of the past by using techniques and insights from a wealth of other fields, including geology, anthropology, history, physics, art history, and even philosophyΓΓé¼ΓÇ¥along with long hours in the field studying the physical traces that our forebears have left behind.
"Windows Into the Past"
Your guide to the study of archaeology is Dr. Susan Foster McCarter (Ph.D., Brandeis University), an affiliate of the Department of Near Eastern Studies at Johns Hopkins University. She also lectures for the Smithsonian Institution's Resident Associates Program.
With decades of teaching and field experience as well as a special scholarly interest in prehistoric Aegean sites on Cyprus and Crete, Dr. McCarter shares with you her expertise and her love for finding "windows into the past."
"The goals of the course are to explain key archaeological concepts and practices, and to illustrate how archaeologists reconstruct the past, especially the prehistoric past (before the invention of writing)," says Dr. McCarter. "Archaeology is a science, and archaeologists are trained in many subdisciplines. They reach their conclusions by careful research. This is not true of pseudoarchaeologists, who use selected archaeological information to support preconceived ideas about the past."
Archaeology is a recent science; until about 100 years ago, all excavation was licensed looting. But some collectors were as interested in understanding the ancient cultures that had produced the works of art they collected as they were in the art itself. We refer to such collectors as antiquariansΓΓé¼ΓÇ¥people who recovered ancient remains more to preserve the past than for personal enjoyment.
The first scientific excavation occurred in 1784 when Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826), 17 years before he became president, excavated native burial mounds according to the Law of Superposition (the earliest remains are those which were laid down first, and the latest remains are those which were laid down last). He recorded everything he found and published his data. Essentially, Jefferson conducted a modern scientific excavation.
As the 19th century progressed, antiquarianism set the stage for scientific archaeology. You will learn about General Augustus Lane-Fox Pitt-Rivers, Sir Flinders Petrie, Sir Arthur Evans, Alfred Kidder, and George BassΓΓé¼ΓÇ¥British and American founders of the scientific methods of archaeology.
Scientific Archaeology has three goals:
- to describe and classify what is found
- to figure out the function of what is found
- to explain how and why ancient cultures changed over time.
Discover the Archaeological Process
Along with history and basic concepts, much of the course's first half, "The Archaeological Process," introduces you to the ways in which archaeologists find, excavate, preserve, and date valuable sites (using everything from tree rings and changing pottery styles to atomic technology) and the assemblages of artifacts associated with them. You learn about such topics as:
- why archaeological surveys must cover the same ground at several different times of day
- how archaeologists learn volumes from discards and garbage
- why ceramic artifacts are so important to the study of the past
- how the presence of glaciers assists archaeological research in Scandinavia.
Some sites, such as the pyramids in Egypt, have always been known. But most sites are far less conspicuous. The method used by archaeologists to find over 70 percent of sites is called archaeological reconnaissance, or site survey.
Survey begins with gathering published information about the area to be studied. Archaeologists then go to the area and walk over it, recording what they find. Surveys can be enhanced by the use of aerial photography and various scientific sensing methods. An archaeologist uses the information gathered through the survey to decide whether to excavate, and if so, where.
In addition to surveying, Dr. McCarter discusses in depth topics such as:
- scientific dating methods
- analyzing the meaning of remains
- methods of excavation.
Interpreting Archaeological Finds
In the second half of her series, "Interpreting Archaeological Finds," Dr. McCarter shows you how archaeologists use evidence to formulate and test hypotheses about the past. You will learn how archaeologists debate among themselves the question of changeΓΓé¼ΓÇ¥the primary process they studyΓΓé¼ΓÇ¥and about the competing theories that can be devised to explain the same concrete pieces of evidence.
For early archaeologists, Dr. McCarter points out, classification was the most important aspect of research. Today, although classification is no longer the archaeologist's main concern, it remains a fundamental aspect of processing excavated archaeological material.
By examining finds from the past, archaeologists can amass data about social and cultural practices, populations, diet, disease, age and sex, and causes of death.
You will learn what is discovered by examining such items as:
- human bones
- man-made structures
Professor McCarter also discusses how we can track the rise and fall of civilizations through evidence gleaned by scientific excavations.
These days, archaeology is part of popular culture. Museum displays are aimed at the general public. Mass tourism now visits ancient sites. Archaeology receives extensive publicity through popular writing and journalism and even contributes to home entertainment through prime-time programs.
Archaeology today, Dr. McCarter concludes, faces dilemmas posed by the destruction of thousands of unexcavated sites and by ethical questions hanging over the disposition of remains and artifacts, but continues to provide us with a priceless picture of how our past unfolded and our present came to be.
01. What is Archaeology?
02. The Scientific Underpinnings
03. Historians, Treasure Hunters, and Antiquarians
04. The Fathers of Scientific Excavation
05. Preservation of Archaeological Remains
06. Stratigraphic and Sequence Dating
07. Seriation, Ancient Sources, and Sediments
08. Dating Using Flora and Fauna
09. Radiocarbon and Potassium-Argon Dating
10. Other Scientific Dating Methods
11. Archaeological Survey
13. Interpreting Finds
14. Stone Tools
17. Features and Structures
18. Reconstructing Ancient Cultures
19. Archaeological Theories about Change
20. Paleolithic Art
21. The Neolithic Revolution
22. Catal Huyuk
23. The Rise of Civilizations
24. Archaeology and Ethics
Видео кодек: DivX
Аудио кодек: MP3
Видео: DivX, 640х480, 4:3, 435 kbps, 29,970 fps
Аудио: MP3, 128 kbps, 48,0 kHz, 2 ch
Формат : AVI
Формат/Информация : Audio Video Interleave
Размер файла : 176 МиБ
Продолжительность : 42 м.
Общий поток : 575 Кбит/сек
Программа кодирования : FairUse Wizard - http://fairusewizard.com
Библиотека кодирования : The best and REALLY easy backup tool
Идентификатор : 0
Формат : MPEG-4 Visual
Параметры BVOP формата : Да
Параметры QPel формата : Нет
Параметры GMC формата : Без точки перехода
Параметры матрицы формата : Default (H.263)
Режим смешивания : Сжатый битовый поток
Идентификатор кодека : DX50
Идентификатор кодека/Подсказка : DivX 5
Продолжительность : 42 м.
Битрейт : 435 Кбит/сек
Ширина : 640 пикс.
Высота : 480 пикс.
Соотношение кадра : 4:3
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ColorSpace : YUV
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Тип развёртки : Прогрессивная
Бит/(Пиксели*Кадры) : 0.047
Размер потока : 133 МиБ (76%)
Библиотека кодирования : DivX 6.4.0 (UTC 2006-10-03)
Идентификатор : 1
Формат : MPEG Audio
Версия формата : Version 1
Профайл формата : Layer 3
Режим : Joint stereo
Format_Settings_ModeExtension : MS Stereo
Идентификатор кодека : 55
Идентификатор кодека/Подсказка : MP3
Продолжительность : 42 м.
Вид битрейта : Постоянный
Битрейт : 128 Кбит/сек
Канал(ы) : 2 канала(ов)
Частота : 48,0 КГц
Размер потока : 39,2 МиБ (22%)
Выравнивание : Соединение по промежуткам
Продолжительность промежутка : 33 мс. (1,00 видеокадр)
Время предзагрузки промежутка : 504 ms
Библиотека кодирования : LAME3.97b
Настройки программы : -m j -V 4 -q 2 -lowpass 17 -b 128