Тип раздаваемого материала: Видеоурок
Продолжительность: 18:09:08 (36 лекций по 30 минут + introduction + credits)
Год выпуска: 2008
Описание: Курс лекций по истории науки, охватывающий промежуток от 1700 до 1900 года.
In the period 1700-1900, kings and empires rose and fell, but science conquered all, taking the world by storm.
Yet, as the 1700s began, the mysteries of the universe were pondered by "natural philosophers"—the term "scientist" didn't even exist until the mid 19th century—whose explanations couldn't help but be influenced by the religious thought and political and social contexts that shaped their world.
The radical ideas of the Enlightenment were especially important and influential. In this course you see how the work of these natural philosophers prepared the way for the more familiar world of science we recognize today.
Understand Two Centuries of Scientific Discoveries from an Unusually Qualified Professor
To navigate this complex a mix of social factors and scientific knowledge requires a teacher of very specialized background. Trained as both a mathematician and seminarian before receiving his doctorate as a scholar of scientific history, Professor Frederick Gregory brings an unusually apt perspective to the era covered by this course. It was a time when the Church's influences on science were often profound.
Dr. Gregory has organized the course around six main themes:
* inquiries into the history of the cosmos
* investigations into the realm of living things
* the largely successful attempt to break away from occult explanations of chemical phenomena
* the contrasting persistence of occult appeals in explaining natural phenomena
* the proliferation of the number and kind of physical forces discovered and investigated, thereby opening up broad vistas for the future
* the recurring theme of the relationship of God to nature.
In moving back and forth across two centuries, the lectures touch on many of the scientific disciplines we know today, including chemistry, biology, physics, astronomy, paleontology, and others. And they often cover in detail famous experiments and discoveries in areas as divergent as electromagnetism, fossil analysis, and medicine.
Beyond Einstein: Familiar Names, and Some Surprises, Too
You will find names that leap out as familiar, like Isaac Newton, Charles Darwin, Michael Faraday, Louis Pasteur, Max Planck, Antoine Lavoisier, and Albert Einstein.
And you'll meet some of the greatest names in the histories of non-scientific disciplines. These include thinkers as diverse as Immanuel Kant, Johann von Goethe, Herbert Spencer, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, and Thomas Paine, to name but a few. All of them entered the fray to leave their mark on the annals of scientific inquiry.
But you'll also learn about others within this fledgling scientific community whom you may never have encountered before. Do you know about Nicolas Malebranche ... Jakob Moleschott ... Robert Chambers ... Abraham Werner ... William Whewell ... or a remarkable woman named Mary Somerville?
Though perhaps less familiar than the scientific minds with whom we have grown up, their roles in the developing history of science were equally important.
The Interaction of Science and Society
The discussions of scientific principles always show how science developed and how scientific inquiry influenced, and was influenced by, the culture of which it was a part. Any discussion of such influence, of course, must take into account the impact of religion.
The Church's precepts played a role in investigations in almost every area of natural science, from the mechanical laws that governed the behavior of the universe and the bodies within it to the debate over God's role in embryonic development.
You'll even learn about a ferocious debate over the possibility of extra-terrestrial life that had its roots in the 13th century.
The debate—which Professor Gregory dubs "The Extra-Terrestrial Life Fiasco"—ultimately involved Thomas Aquinas, the papacy (more than once), Thomas Paine, and the Master of Cambridge University's Trinity College.
Captivating Portraits of an Era and Its People
The debate is just one of many episodes that amplify the themes of the course and are simply fascinating in their own right, conveying a vivid portrait of an era and the people who helped shape it.
You'll learn how:
* the already raging firestorm over the possibility of evolution led Darwin to delay publishing his own findings
* the poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge was involved in coining the term, "scientist"
* the self-educated daughter of a British naval officer became a major scientific authority in Victorian Britain.
This course will give you a multi-disciplined picture of science in its historical context as it explores the ideas that took the world by storm.
Beyond that obvious benefit, it will also allow you to enjoy a provocative and nuanced look into an era of excitement and exploration, as scientific thought changed and adapted to accommodate a radically changing world.
This history of science series beginning in the 18th century works very well on its own, and is also designed to follow chronologically from Professor Lawrence M. Principe's 36-lecture course on the history of the foundations of science, The History of Science: Antiquity to 1700.
History of Science: 1700–1900
by Frederick Gregory (Biography)
The following materials are provided to enhance your learning experience. Click the links below for free information including a professor-authored course summary, recommended web links, and a condensed bibliography.
* Course Summary - Professor's written description of the course.
* Professor Recommended Links
* Condensed Bibliography - Prepared by the professor for this course.
In the wake of the success of the "new science" of the 17th century, many in the subsequent era wished to extend the spirit of discovery into new areas. Experimental and theoretical investigations into a host of new subjects helped to shape the period that has come to be known as the Enlightenment, or the Age of Reason. By deliberately cutting across scientific disciplines, this course attempts to provide a glimpse into the spirit of excitement and exploration that enabled many to question accepted opinion on a number of different issues. In the process, we shall see that concepts no longer regarded as tenable in the 21st century, such as ideas of weightless matter and preformed embryos, proved to be extremely useful to earlier natural philosophers. Eighteenth-century science, then, is particularly instructive concerning the complex way in which natural science develops. It also illustrates that the investigation of nature is never pursued in a vacuum. We shall encounter examples of how science is embedded in and affected by its cultural context and even its political context, especially as we approach the French Revolution at the end of the century. The conclusions of 18th-century natural philosophers also contributed to the growth of a new attitude about the relevance of natural knowledge to religion. Continuing the 17th-century assumption that the investigation of nature provided a testimony to the wisdom of the creator, some presumed to regard their findings as suggestions of the natural means God had employed in his role as ruler of the cosmos. We shall see several examples of how freely some natural philosophers presumed to provide explanations for matters previously attributed to direct divine action.
The mechanical view of nature that had been developed in the wake of Newton’s achievement proved to be highly successful in the Enlightenment, but in the19th century, a new science of living things came into existence and, with it, a romantic version of natural science. The question immediately arose whether there was something irreducible about life, whether organism was prior to mechanism. To complicate matters further, discoveries of fossil remains forced humankind to acknowledge the existence of an entire prehistoric world, demanding a complete reorientation to the past and to the place of humans in the natural world. These were no small issues; they implied that the commonly accepted view of the past needed to be altered. Some suggested that the present resulted from a natural process of development over a long time, asserting, in the manner of their forerunners, that they had uncovered the natural means God had employed to produce the present diversity of living things. These issues were forced onto the public in the years before Darwin, so that the appearance of The Origin of Species continued a discussion that was well underway. Theories about the history of organisms fascinated those in the late 19th century, as did claims about the relevance of these theories for pressing social, political, and medical issues. Always in the background hovered the question of what the new claims of natural science meant for people of faith.
Physical science also presented the 19th century with its storehouse of marvels. No one realized, in 1796, that forces were at work undermining the perfect machinery of the heavens celebrated by Pierre Simon Laplace that year. If forces were as interconvertible as they seemed to be at the beginning of the century, signs that things were more mysterious than Newton had anticipated appeared, with the curious properties of electromagnetism and a new understanding of the role of heat in the 1820s. From there, the world of science became more and more intriguing. By 1854, Hermann Helmholtz forecasted a new vision of the future of the world based on irreversible physical processes. The universe was running down and doomed to a tragic end. When popular writers on the Continent latched on to the latest science to support a materialistic view of reality, north British physicists employed the new science of energy to oppose them. A concomitant clash about the meaning of physical science occurred when unexpected claims about the possibility of extraterrestrial life erupted before a public already fascinated with the latest observations of new and extremely powerful telescopes. If electromagnetism had introduced curiosities earlier in the century, it continued to mystify in James Maxwell’s treatment at mid-century. Not only was light somehow involved, but experiments conducted in the wake of Maxwell’s work just did not make sense. Nevertheless, the amazing accomplishments of physical scientists during the century permitted some not only to be undaunted but to predict confidently that the end of science was near. Developments at the end of the century showed, however, that natural science is an ongoing enterprise much bigger than the outlook of any specific era.
University of Florida
Ph.D., Harvard University
Dr. Frederick Gregory is Professor of History of Science at the University of Florida, where he has taught for 30 years. He holds a B.S. in Mathematics from Wheaton College in Illinois, a B.D. (Bachelor of Divinity) from Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary, an M.A. in the History of Science from the University of Wisconsin–Madison, and a Ph.D. in the History of Science from Harvard University.
Professor Gregory has received numerous grants for research in his field, including an Alexander von Humboldt grant from the German government and a fellowship from the Dibner Institute for the History of Science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He was awarded the 2009 Joseph H. Hazen Education Prize for excellence in education from the History of Science Society. He has also won the University of Florida's John Mahon Teaching Award for excellence in undergraduate teaching, as well as the Norman Wilensky Graduate Teaching Award. He has provided commentary for the American production of the television series The Day the Universe Changed
Professor Gregory's research interests have focused on German science in the 18th and 19th centuries, particularly as it reflects the larger cultural setting in which it is embedded. His two-volume undergraduate textbook, Natural Science in Western History, was published in 2008.
1. Science in the 18th and 19th Centuries
2. Consolidating Newton's Achievement
3. Theories of the Earth
4. Grappling with Rock Formations
5. Alchemy under Pressure
6. Lavoisier and the New French Chemistry
7. The Classification of Living Things
8. How the Embryo Develops
9. Medical Healers and Their Roles
10. Mesmerism, Science, and the French Revolution
11. Explaining Electricity
12. The Amazing Achievements of Galvani and Volta
13. Biology is Born
14. Alternative Visions of Natural Science
15. A World of Prehistoric Beasts
16. Evolution French Style
17. The Catastrophist Synthesis
18. Exploring the World
19. A Victorian Sensation
20. The Making of The Origin of Species
21. Troubles with Darwin's Theory
22. Science, Life, and Disease
23. Human Society and the Struggle for Existence
24. Whither God?
25. Forces, Forces Everywhere
26. Electromagnetism Changes Everything
27. French Insights About Heat
28. New Institutions of Natural Science
29. The Conservation of What?
30. Culture Wars and Thermodynamics
31. Scientific Materialism at Mid-Century
32. The Mechanics of Molecules
33. Astronomical Achievement
34. The Extra-Terrestrial Life Fiasco
35. Catching Up With Light
36. The End of Science?
Видео кодек: H.264
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Программа кодирования : FairUse Wizard - http://fairusewizard.com
Библиотека кодирования : The best and REALLY easy backup tool
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